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          关于素食主义的辩论:如何改变他人的观点?

          kira86 于2019-04-11发布 l 已有人浏览
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          素食主义为什么会流行起来,可能不仅仅是因为健康,而是因为你信仰。
            小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

          素食主义.jpg
          Debating veganism: How to change someone's opinion

          关于素食主义的辩论:如何改变别人的观点?

          Dan: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Dan and joining me is Rob.

          大家好,欢迎收听六分钟英语。我是丹,今天和我一起主持节目的是罗布。

          Rob: Hello.

          大家好。

          Dan: Here at BBC Learning English, we're always discussing diets.

          在BBC英语学习节目?#26657;?#25105;们经常讨论节食这个话题。

          Rob: I am on a sea-food diet. When I see food, I just have to eat it!

          我正在假节食(seafood diet即see food diet)。当我看到食物,我就不得不吃掉它们。

          Dan: I suppose there's no chance of converting you to a vegan diet, is there? That seems be the most talked about food fad at the moment - a fad is something that is popular but only for a short time.

          我想你应该不可能改为吃纯素吧,对吗?素食主义饮食是目前谈论最多的饮食新食尚——“a fad”是一种流行的东西,但往往只会流行很短一段时间。

          Rob: Of course, veganism - that's not eating or using any products that come from animals - may be more than a fad. It could be a lifestyle that improves our health and the planet. And it could be here to stay. But personally, me becoming a vegan would take some persuading.

          当然,素食主义是指不吃或不使用任何来自动物的制品,素食主义可能不仅仅是一种时?#26657;?#32032;食可以是一种改善我们健康?#32422;?#20445;护地球的生活方?#20581;?#36825;种生活方式可能会一?#32972;中?#19979;去。但就我个人而言,要想让?#39029;?#20026;?#24187;?#32032;食主义者得需要把我说服?#21028;小?/p>

          Dan: I'm sure it would. And in this programme we'll be discussing the debate about veganism and how it's sometimes difficult to change people's minds. But first a question to answer. We've mentioned what a vegan eats but what about a lacto-ovo-vegetarian? Which one of these items can they eat? Is it: a) pork b) fish or c) cheese?

          我肯定你会被说服的。在这期节目?#26657;?#25105;们将讨论关于素食主义的辩论,?#32422;?#26377;时候改变人们的想法有多?#36873;?#20294;首先,要回答一个问题。我们已经提到过素食主义者吃什么,那么乳蛋素食主义者又吃什么呢?他们可以吃以下食物中的哪一种?是a) 猪肉 b)鱼 还是 c)奶酪?

          Rob: I'll say b) they can eat fish.

          我选b),乳蛋素食主义者可以?#26434;恪?/p>

          Dan: Well, you'll have to wait until the end of the programme to find out. But now back to veganism. According to some national surveys, there are now around 3.5 million full-time vegans in the UK... and the number is growing!

          嗯,你得等到节目结束才能知?#26469;?#26696;了。但现在回到素食主义这个话题。根据一些全国性的调查,现在英国约有350万名完全素食主义者。而且这一数字还在增加!

          Rob: And what was recently a radical lifestyle choice is slowly moving into the mainstream - or has become accepted by most people as normal.

          最近一种极端的生活方式正在慢慢成为主流,或者说已被大多数人接受,成为了一种正常的生活方?#20581;?/p>

          Dan: Advocates of veganism say their healthy lifestyle would also free up space and resources for growing food and it would help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

          素食主义的支持者称,他们健康的生活方式也将腾出空间和资源来种植植物,这将有助于减少温室气体的?#27431;擰?/p>

          Rob: Yeah, but come on Dan. Having a meat-free diet means you might not get all the nutrients you need.

          是的,不过话说回来,丹,无肉饮食意味着你可能无法获得所需的所有营养。

          Dan: Well, this is all part of the debate, Rob. There's always two sides to an argument and it's something that's been discussed on BBC Radio 4's Farming Today programme. They spoke to Dr Jutta Tobias Mortlock, a senior lecturer in organisational psychology at London's City University, who explained why views about veganism are so polarised - that 'means causing people to divide into two groups with opposing views'.

          嗯,这正是辩论一部分的,罗布。争论总有正反两面,这正是BBC广播4台《今日农业》节目中所讨论的话题。他们采访了伦敦城市大学组织心理学高级讲师朱塔·托拜厄斯·马忒拉克博士,他解释了为什么关于素食主义的观点如此两极分化,“polarised”(观点分化)的意思是“造成人们分成了两组?#38047;?#30340;观点相反的人”。

          Dr Jutta Tobias Mortlock

          朱塔·托拜厄斯·马忒拉克博士

          This issue touches on personal beliefs, and beliefs always trump facts and so, often when we talk about beliefs, we're touching on important values. Values are the things that guide our opinion over what's right versus what's wrong. And so whenever people argue over whether it's right or wrong to eat meat, they are in fact not debating the facts around this issue, they're actually debating the beliefs about what's moral or immoral about this.

          这个问题涉及到个人信仰,而信仰总是凌驾于事实之上,所以,当我们谈论信仰时,我们经常会涉及到重要的价值观。价值观是引导我们判断对错的东西。所以当人们争论吃肉是对是错的时候,他们实际上并不是在争论这个问题的事实,他们实际上是在辩论关于这个问题是道德的还是不道德的的信念。

          Dan: So it seems in the whole debate about veganism we are basing our views on beliefs. A belief is something we feel is true or real. Our beliefs are based on our values - those are the things we think are right and wrong.

          所以在关于素食主义的整个辩论?#26657;?#25105;们的观点都基于信仰。“belief”(信念)就是我们觉得什么是对或者最重要的东西。我们的信念基于我们的价值观,这是我们判断是非对错的依据。

          Rob: And when we argue over the rights and wrongs of veganism, we base it on our values - not hard facts. We talk about our view on what is immoral - so what society thinks is wrong or not acceptable. But basically, there is no right or wrong answer.

          当我们争论纯素食主义是对是错时,我们时基于我们的价值观,而不是铁的事实。我们谈论我们对什么是不道德的看法,?#32422;吧?#20250;大众认为是错误的或不可接受的事。但基本上,答?#35813;?#26377;对错之分。

          Dan: That's why we need facts, Rob.

          这就是为什么我们需要事实,罗伯。

          Rob: So Dan, what can I do if I want to win you over to becoming an omnivore, like me?

          那么丹,如果我想把你变成像我一样的杂食者,我该怎么做?

          Dan: According to Dr Jutta, there are two main routes to winning someone over: a direct, fact-based approach or a 'peripheral route', which might be more effective. Let's hear her explain how it works.

          据朱塔博士所言,有两种方法可以说服某人:一种是直接的、基于事实的方法,另一种事“外围方法”,第二种可能更?#34892;А?#25105;们来听听她解释第二种方法是如何凑效的。

          Dr Jutta Tobias Mortlock

          朱塔·托拜厄斯·马忒拉克博士

          If I'm working with you and I'm trying to get you to come round to my side, I might not focus on the central facts. I might focus on the peripheral stuff around how I'm constructing my argument. I'd look for ways of how they overlap as people, like what do they have in common? And that's a way to debate an issue such as this controversial one in a way to get people to feel connected to each other and to actually feel that they value each other as decent human beings.

          如果我和你一起工作,我想让你站我的队来支持我,我可能不会关注核心事实。我可能会围绕如何构建我的论点来关注周边事物。我会寻找他们与他人重合的部分,比如他们有什么共同点?#31354;?#26159;一种讨论这样一个有争议的问题的方式,通过这种方式,让人们感到彼此相互联系,并真切地感受到他们将对方视为正派的人。

          Rob: Interesting! This is a more subtle way of winning an argument. She says we should focus on the peripheral stuff - these are the things that are not as important as the main argument but are connected to it.

          ?#24184;?#24605;!这是一?#38047;?#24471;争论的更微妙的方?#20581;?#22905;说,我们应该?#28814;?#24847;力集中在?#25105;?#30340;事情上——这些事情不如主要论点那么重要,但却与之相关。

          Dan: So we could say we're looking for common ground - things that both sides agree on or at least understand. Dr Jutta talked about making both sides feel connected. And it's a good point. Even if you don't want to be a vegan, you should respect someone's choice to be one.

          所以我们可以说我们在寻找共同点——即双方都同意、至少都理解的事情。朱塔博士让双方感到有联系。这是一个很好的观点。?#35789;?#20320;不想成为素食主义者,你应该尊重别人的选择。

          Rob: Yes, it's all about valuing someone as a decent human being. Decent means 'good and having good moral standards'. Like us, Dan!

          对,就是要把对方看作一个正派的人。“Decent”(正派)的意思是“好的,有好的道德标准的”。像我们一样,丹!

          Dan: Well, they're wise words, Rob! Of course, it would be morally wrong - immoral - not to give you the answer to our quiz question. Earlier I asked which one of these items can a lacto-ovo-vegetarian eat.

          嗯,这些话很有道理,罗布!当然,不给测试问题的答案是不道德的。早些时候我?#20351;?#20083;蛋素食者可以吃这些食物中的哪一种。

          Rob: I said b) fish.

          我选的是b)鱼。

          Dan: Sorry, no - that's something they can't eat - but they can eat cheese. A lacto-ovo-vegetarian is a person who eats vegetables, eggs, and dairy products but does not eat meat.

          抱?#31119;?#31572;错了,鱼是他们不能吃的东西,但他们可以?#38405;?#37226;。乳蛋素食者是吃蔬菜、鸡蛋和乳制?#36820;?#19981;吃肉的人。

          Rob: No meat! No steak! How can they enjoy eating?!

          没有肉!没?#20449;?#25490;!他们怎么能享受美食呢?

          Dan: Rob, remember as a decent human beings, we respect all views here.

          罗伯,记住,作为一个正派的人,我们尊重这里的所有观点。

          Rob: Just joking - but now I'm deadly serious about reviewing some of the vocabulary we've discussed today.

          只是开个玩笑,不过现在我非常认真地复习我们今天讨论过的一些词汇。

          Dan: OK. Our first word was fad. A fad is something that is popular but only for a short time.

          好的,我们学的第一个词是fad。“fad”(时尚)是一种流行的东西,但只会流行很短的时间。

          Rob: Next, we mentioned mainstream. Something that is mainstream has become accepted by most people as normal.

          接下来,我们提到了mainstream(主流)。主流的东西即已经被大多数人视为正常的东西。

          Dan: Then we had polarised - that describes a situation that causes people to divide into two groups with opposing views.

          然后我们学了“polarised”(两极分化),两极分化形容的是 一种导致人们分成两组?#38047;?#30456;反的观点的人的情况。

          Rob: A belief is something we feel is true or real. And immoral describes something that society thinks is wrong or not acceptable.

          “belief”(信念)是我们认为是对的或者重要的东西。而immoral(不道德)描述的是社会认为是错误的或不可接受的东西。

          Dan: We also mentioned peripheral, which relates to things that are not as important as the main argument, but are connected to it. It also means situated on the edge.

          我们还提到了“外围”( peripheral),指的是那些不像主要论点那么重要,但却与之相关的事情。这个词还?#24184;?#20010;意思是位于边缘。

          Rob: And finally, decent means good or good enough.

          最后,“decent”(正派的)意思是好的或者足够好的。

          Dan: Don't forget you can learn more English with us on our website at bbclearningenglish.com.

          别忘了你可以在我们的网站bbclearningenglish.com上学习更多的英语内容。

          Rob: Bye for now.

          再见。

          Dan: Goodbye.

          再见。

          小e英语Jewel翻译!

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